Subtask A: Definitions and context
Subtask leaders: Steinar Grynning (SINTEF, Norway), Xingxing Zhang (Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden), Vicky Albert-Seifried (Fraunhofer, Germany)
Activity A1: Definition development
1.1 Identification of the main aspects that we think are important in the definition context (possible examples include system boundaries, different localities, different timeframes, comparing energy carriers, embedded energy, etc.);
1.2 Defining scope: deciding what to include in the PED definition (possible examples include life-cycle energy and emissions and consumption based energy use such as mobility and consumer goods);
1.3 Survey development (in collaboration with other subtasks B-D) for collecting information and developing the state of the art. The main output is a review paper;
1.4 The information will be collected according with the following aspects:
Existing definitions (positive energy buildings, positive energy neighbourhoods, PED, etc.);
Initiatives (national, European, international research projects, other initiatives regarding PEDs);
Case studies (PEDs from approved H2020 SCC or other initiatives) that can be described and used for definition validation;
Literature review about positive energy buildings, positive energy neighbourhoods, PED (scientific papers, books, leaflets, etc.), spatial/temporal scales, essential technologies and components/systems etc.;
Categories of stakeholders usually involved in the PEDs activities;
Regulations and existing barriers for energy sharing in PED;
Objectives of PED from different aspects of energy, economics, environment, and social context.
1.5 Developing KPIs for PED;
1.6 Proposal for a definition (new or adapted from existing);
1.7 Graphical representation (according with the boundary balance, or other parameter)
Activity A2: development of a classification of PED typologies
2.1 Characterizing PED according with several factors to try “to understand their needs and history”: geographic, age, population, culture, types of buildings, construction, use;
2.2 Propose a “Reference” PED or PED Archetype. This can lead to the development of a Virtual PED or a digital twin of PED. This will be based on a solution sets for district level systems, integrate the concepts of energy grids, overall performance, business models, the engagement of stakeholders, mobility, carbon footprint, and social adaptiveness.
2.3 PED lifecycle and project flow for different types of PED, e.g. considering the share of greenfield and brownfield development.
2.4 PED typologies are developed and tested in modelling environments making use of the results of activity B3.
Subtask B: Methods, Tools and Technologies for Realizing Positive Energy Districts.
Subtask leaders: Ursula Eicker (Concordia University, Canada), Genku Kayo (Tokyo City University, Japan), Andrea Gabaldón Moreno (CARTIF, Spain)
Activity B1: Mapping technical solutions
The aim of this activity is to identify the different technical solutions that can be triggered depending on the resources and infrastructures available within a city. Visualizations of the collected data will be development, in the city context visualizations could be supported by GIS. To do so, the following methodology could be approached:
1.1 A comprehensive review of the most common technologies applied in PED (or PED-related, such as smart cities, local energy communities, etc.) at building, district and city level will be conducted. Sources such as demo case studies (Subtask D), PED booklet (JPI Urban Europe), other IEA Annexes, SCC and H2020 projects, energy agencies among others, could be revised to create an inventory of the different technologies applied in a PED or cities approaching PED status. Through this exercise, the best experiences and barriers of the different technologies (functionalities) will be identified.
1.2 From the revision and analysis of the different technologies applied, the technologies can be classified into different topics/areas (heating, cooling, electricity, storage) and scope (building, district, city). In each topic/area the technologies can be compared and evaluated (using KPIs from subtask A) in terms of costs (LCoE,etc), regulatory, environmental, energy efficiency, social acceptance indicators, among others. Consequently, the result of this activity will be a review report/paper (or guideline) critically assessing the existing technologies applied in PEDs in a district/building/city depending on different urban contexts
Activity B2: Smart solutions
The focus of this subtask is to review the most common building/district/city monitoring and control systems. The results from the previous task (B1) and demo cases (Subtask D) will highlight and reveal practical challenges regarding the implementation of smart solutions at different levels, and also future research and development needs in PEDs.
2.1 This activity will conduct a literature review on monitoring technologies, sensors, data collection and control solutions and algorithms feed in from the information obtained in Subtask B1 and Subtask D. Research on data analysis techniques and control strategies techniques (more advanced control systems, forecasting, load shifting, peak saving, demand management, Virtual Power Plants) will be conducted. Other issues such as demand response, flexibility, data management (blockchain) that are useful for managing a PED will be considered. The result will be a comprehensive inventory of the different monitoring and control solutions (depending on the technology) that can be applied at building, district and city level.
2.2 Evaluation of the different smart solutions through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats – (SWOT) analysis and KPIs to identify the barriers/enablers of the different smart solutions. Recommendations will be produced for overcoming the recognized barriers and to strengthen then enablers.
Activity B3: Modelling, simulation and optimization tools
The focus of this task is to investigate and identify the tools for modelling a PED (from demand to the energy balance calculation) that can be used for designing and operating a PED.
3.1 Comparison between the different modelling and simulation tools (grey box, black box, commercial software like TRNSYS, IESVE, etc.; data-driven tools like machine learning, Etc.) and classification depending on the data availability, complexity, know how, applicability at the different levels (building, district, city) and scope/objective functions (1 year to long term planning). Review available district level simulation tools and compare with techniques using aggregation of single-building level simulations. Review various optimization algorithms and find suitability with the districts level simulation approaches.
3.2 Calibration, auto-calibration, data cleaning and data analyses techniques will be revised as useful tools for operating a PED. Furthermore, how to use the modelling tools for optimization of the control systems will be evaluated.
3.3 Running simulation and optimization cases for validation and producing data on viability of different PED concepts with different technology combinations under different operating and weather conditions.
Subtask C: Organizing principles and impact assessment
Subtask leaders: Francesco Guarino (Palermo University, Italy), Dorian Frieden (Joanneum, Austria), Adriano Bisello (EURAC Research, Italy).
Activity C1: Economic Assessment
This activity will develop a market analysis, investigate business models and financing, and investigate the relation with PEDs as well as the economic impacts PEDs may have on existing communities and cities, including economy-wide impacts (local jobs vs imported energy) and non-monetary benefits. It will also investigate PED case-studies with a wide perspective, including life cycle costing and benefits and giving benchmarking tools for stakeholders.
1.1 Literature analysis. This activity will aim at developing a knowledge base among the experts, by creating a repository of scientific literature on PEDs and on different economic assessment methodologies for PEDs. This activity will ultimately identify specific research gaps to be identified and investigated. Multiple benefits (including non-monetary benefits, e.g. social and environmental benefits) are included in the analysis in collaboration with activities C2 and C3;
1.2 Economic framework analysis. This activity will include the investigation and overview on processes and organizational models for PEDs implementation and management, including market strategies/business & financing models for PED diffusion and implementation through the elaboration of existing sets of KPI and the development of innovative ones. This action will ultimately develop a framework on key stakeholders to be consulted in the economic\governance sector as well as information on barriers and drivers to the implementation of PEDs (Collaboration with STA and STB);
1.3 Learning from case-studies. This activity will be based on the analysis of case studies (collaboration with STB and STD) from an economic perspective, aimed at developing benchmarking data for PEDs and testing/developing economic sustainability assessment methodologies to real case-studies;
1.4 Elaboration of the results and lessons learned. This activity will aim at providing guidelines for key stakeholders and provide recommendations for planning and implementation of PEDs from an economic perspective;
Activity C2: Environmental assessment
This activity will analyze PEDs and their environmental impacts: climate change, particulate emissions, biodiversity etc. in a wide range and spectrum of indicators, in order not to move environmental issues and impacts from one category to another.
Also the life cycle environmental perspective will be taken in consideration by investigating different stages of the life cycle of PEDs (e.g. construction, operation, end-of-life).
2.1 Literature analysis. This activity will aim at developing a knowledge base among the experts, by developing research analysis on the environmental impacts of PEDs from both the methodological approach, modeling perspective (e.g. tools and data quality used) and environmental impacts chosen (e.g. KPIs used and environmental indicators adopted). This activity will ultimately identify specific research gaps to be identified and investigated;
2.2 Environmental framework analysis. This activity will harmonize existing KPIs in the environmental sector and propose alternative ones, will elaborate processes and organizational models for PED implementation and environmental management of PEDs. Ultimately, this action will develop a framework on key stakeholders to be consulted in the environmental sector as well as information on barriers and drivers to the implementation of PEDs (Collaboration with STA and STB);
2.3 Learning from case-studies. This action aims at the benchmarking of environmental assessment methodologies (e.g. LCA, multicriteria analysis) for use in the analysis of PEDs environmental impacts and benefits. This activity will be based on the analysis of case studies and testing of the methodological approaches chosen and tested (collaboration with STB and STD);
2.4 Elaboration of the results and lessons learned. This activity will aim at providing guidelines for key stakeholders and provide recommendations for planning and implementation of PEDs from an environmental perspective;
Activity C3: Humanities and social impact assessment
This activity will investigate positive and negative impacts arising from the implementation and diffusion of PEDs, their social acceptance and social inclusiveness. It will also address organizational models and stakeholder engagement in PED development.
3.1 Literature analysis. This activity will aim at developing a knowledge base among the experts, by developing research analysis on the social impacts of PEDs. It will target development of organizational formats, stakeholder involvement as well as the methodological approaches towards social impacts assessment (e.g. Social – life cycle assessment). This activity will ultimately identify specific research gaps to be identified and investigated;
3.2 Social framework analysis. This activity will investigate the most relevant stakeholders groups, harmonize the available positive and negative impact indicators and KPIs from the social perspective while proposing new ones. This action will elaborate processes and organizational models for PED implementation and social management of PEDs. Ultimately, this action will develop a framework on key stakeholders to be consulted in the humanities and social sector as well as information on barriers and drivers to the implementation of PEDs (Collaboration with STA and STB);
3.3 Learning from case-studies. This action is based upon the benchmarking of environmental assessment methodologies (e.g. Social-Life Cycle Assessment) to be used for the analysis of PEDs social negative and positive impacts. This activity will be based on the analysis of case studies and testing of the methodological approaches chosen and tested (collaboration with STB and STD).
3.4 Organizational models and stakeholder engagement in PED development. Recognizing the key actors and how to efficiently include them in PED development in each step of the process. Also assessing the impacts of policymaking and regulation on PED development and producing recommendations.
3.5 Elaboration of the results and lessons learned. This activity will aim at providing guidelines for key stakeholders and provide recommendations for planning and implementation of PEDs from a social perspective.
Subtask D: Demos, implementation and dissemination
Subtask leaders: Niki Gaitani (NTNU, Norway), Florencio Manteca González (CENER, Spain), Neumann Hans-Martin (AIT, Austria)
Activity D1: Demonstration cases
- Demo Cases database
- Guidelines for monitoring and reporting
- Reporting and sharing key findings
- Issues to consider: stakeholder viewpoints, different ambition levels (we can include nearly PEDs if they can offer useful data or learnings)
- Learning from the cases (keep target audience in mind, who can realize the necessary change): best practices, lessons for the definition (subtask A)
Activity D2: Planning and implementation methodology
- Summarizes the results of the Annex for dissemination
- Urban planning guidelines and best practices for PED
- Technical guidelines and best practices for PED
- Tools and methods for different phases: design, construction, operation and verification, maintenance, renovation, end of life, etc.
- Other issues to consider: mobility, storage, monitoring, etc., different contexts (climates, markets, urban, suburban and rural, etc.)
- Roadmap for reaching PED goals in cities and regions
Activity D3: Dissemination
- Issues to cover: benefits (healthy and comfortable environments), energy, , climate change, security, economics and affordability, local jobs vs. energy imports, democracy and social justice)
- Coming up with ways to reach different stakeholders groups in dissemination activities
- Using and documenting the lessons from stakeholder communication from the demo cases
- Social media
- Presentations, workshops and seminars
- Collaboration with other projects and initiatives
- Transferring outputs to national and international policy development, companies, academia and funding programmes
- Deliverables and publications